Nootropic Benefits: The Studies
You sadly won’t perform like Bradley Cooper in Limitless but in order to be persuaded that these are not just a stack of quackery supplements, a little verification might help.
So here follows details of the following nootropic studies that have lead the discovery and science of nootropics.
1. Piracetam Study
A small study was performed at University College in Cardiff in 1976 by 2 researchers on the effects piracetam may have on normal subjects.
Participants: 16 healthy 2nd & 3rd year students – 12 male/4 female
Dosage: 4.8 grams/day of piracetam or placebo for 2 weeks followed by 4 weeks of placebo and cognitive testing
Objective: To learn a series of words presented as stimuli on a memory drum
Results: First 7 days no effects / Verbal learning increased after 14 days as observed through cognitive testing. Paper and pencil tests and computerized tests were carried out to measure perceptual motor reactions.
Research demonstrated piracetam has greater effects on performance than placebo with clear evidence for improvement in verbal learning attributed to piracetam intake.
Published Study: Results of the study were summarized in the influential and provocatively titled paper “Increase in the Power of Human Memory in Normal Man through the Use of Drugs.”
2. Toxicity Trials
Nootropics are argued to be the lowest and safest substances to man when it comes to their toxilogical level.
Humans as well as rats, mice, goldfish, rabbits, guinea pigs, cats, dogs and monkeys have all endured toxicity testing of nootropics as far back as piracetam was conceived hence it is with this nootropic where the majority of the early studies lie.
Of which, one noticeable piracetam study took place on mice for 6 months where they were fed 100 to 1000 mg of this tam a day, while dogs were for a year fed 10’000 mg of piracetam for a whole year through intravenous means.
No slightest teratogenic levels which cause birth defects or toxicity were detected.
3. Stroke, Dementia & Brain Trauma Studies
The study of nootropics in particular on brain diseases such as Alzheimers and dementia as well as on strokes and brain injury has resulted in many positive results.
a) Nootropic Aphasic Stroke Trials
Aphasia affects ones ability to converse either through a slow degenerative disease such as a tumor or more commonly through a brain injury or a stroke.
Speech and language therapy is normally the first step however piracetam studies on the recovery of aphasic stroke sufferers has proved beneficial.
Of which one study of 50 aphasic patients underwent a piracetam trial.
Subjects: 24 were given 4.8g of piracetam, 26 placebo where both groups experienced similar symptoms. Neither included sufferers of mild aphasia and all hade been 100% healthy prior to their stroke or brain injury.
Trial: 10 1 hour intensive language therapy sessions.
Results: Piracetam had both favorable effects on written language sub-test and on the communicative ability with improvement also on spontaneous speech while a reduction in severity of the subjects’ aphasia were observed.
b) Nootropic Dimentia Trials
Dementia is not a disease as such rather a term used to describe a collective range of symptoms that cause an irreversible decline in memory, speech, movement and other critical thinking skills, with Alzheimer’s being the most widespread form of dementia.
Your hydrocarbon core fluidity will be significantly lower from someone your same age if you have Alzheimers however a study involving the in vitro administration of piracetam on dementia patients showed that hydrocarbon core fluidity went up to an equal level of those without dementia.
In the 1999 study, membrane fluidity went up on average 60.9% compared to those treated with placebo of 32.5%.
Why membrane fluidity went up 32.5% when treated with a placebo supplement is unclear, but its sibling tam aniracetam has also demonstrated membrane fluidity improvement in medical trials where it also displays anti-anxiety properties.
In fact aniracetam may be more effective than piracetam when it comes to treating dementia as one trial demonstrated, where for 6 months a group of men and women between the ages of 68 to 80 with mild to moderate cognitive decline in motion were split into 3 groups with each receiving separate doses.
The first were given 1500mg of aniracetam daily, the second 2400mg of piracetam and the third a placebo pill.
Results demonstrated that the aniracetam group while experiencing minimal to zero side effects proved the most effective treatment, more than piracetam, with the placebo groups mental health continuing to decline during the trial.
c) Nootropic Brain Injury Trials
Prescribed to Russian astronauts to heighten their mental and physical strengths while in orbit, Phenylpiracetam when taken orally is incredibly fast acting, more so than when compared with piracetam to treat cognitive injury.
This nootropic compound has helped improve cognition scores of those who’ve underwent a brain injury like a car crash or bullet wound or those who’ve experienced depression following encephalopathy – when disease, damage, or malfunction of the brain manifests itself through an altered mental state.
Ukrainian studies (Malykh & Sadaie, 2010) have concluded that in terms of restoring memory loss in patients suffering from mild cranium and cerebrum trauma – pramiracetam is superior to piracetam, while Italian research has yielded that pramiracetam is also effective in reducing amnesia-related effects caused by scopolamine intoxication – this is where scopolamine that is used to relieve nausea, vomiting, dizziness, motion sickness or anaesthesia recovery from surgery sometimes causes adverse and serious side effects.
Why our body needs Choline
In 1998 the Institute of Medicine ruled that choline was integral to maintaining health where a deficiency can increase DNA impairment.
As explained in Chapter 2 under the Cholinergics Family, choline is the precursor to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine responsible for memory function.
A choline deficiency can cause both cognitive decline, DNA damage and according to the Linus Pauling Institute, a fatty liver.
In one study conducted on 57 subjects, 77% of the men, 80% of the postmenopausal women and 44% of the premenopausal women who all had either muscle damage, a fatty liver or liver damage, were all fed a dose of choline daily.
Results were comprehensive, whereby each of these three ailments were reversed.
This is attributed to their specific intake of Huperzine A which is a member of the cholinergics family, which also improves learning, memory and energy expenditure levels.
Many of the current nootropics for 2016 will contain not just Alpha-GPC which is a choline supplement but also Huperzine A – an additional member of the cholinergics family so you get more for your buck as the science improves.
Why our body needs Vitamins & Supplements
Vitamin B is the king of vitamins when it comes to cognitive health as previously mentioned where there incredibly abundant in “whole processed foods” that are nutrient dense as opposed to “processed foods which are energy dense.
Thiamine – Vitamin B1
Stacked with fiber, vitamins and minerals with low added fat and sugar verses high calorie foods, packed with calories with little to no value to your body, whole processed foods include: fresh lean meats, fresh fish/shellfish, eggs, fresh fruits, fresh vegetables, frozen vegetables, frozen fruits, unsalted nuts, low-fat milk or skimmed milk at 1%, plain yogurt, low-fat cheese and cottage cheese.
Buried within these whole foods are an array of vitamin B’s: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9 and B12, where any deficiency in either of these may cause health complications.
A lack of B1 (Thiamine) will cause an irregular heart rate, aching limbs and cognitive dysfunctions such as a jaded memory, irregular coordination and deteriorating vision.
Drinkers, smokers, caffeine addicts and substance abusers are all more susceptible to developing a B1 deficiency.
Folic Acid – B9
A reduction in B9 foods such as black eyed peas, lentils, spinach, asparagus, lettuce, avocado, broccoli, tropical fruits, oranges and wheat bread all contribute to a B9 deficiency.
This may result in birth defects if the mother doesn’t consume enough of these foods during pregnancy, while increasing symptoms of depression and impaired mental functioning in later life if they are not part of your staple diet.
Pyridoxine – B6
The following B6 rich foods: tuna, turkey, beef, chicken, salmon, sweet potato, sunflower seeds and bananas are integral to helping relieve depression, reducing memory issues, improving peripheral neuropathies – damaged peripheral nerves that can cause tunnel vision – and especially reducing a woman’s chance of developing macular degeneration – the leading female cause of vision loss.
Biotin – B7
The world’s healthiest Biotin foods include peanuts, almonds, sweet potato, eggs, onions, oats, tomatoes, carrots, walnuts and salmon all play a crucial role in again – peripheral neuropathy and where a deficiency may lead to anorexia, vomiting, a slow metabolism, bad skin and an unhealthy cognitive development.
Vitamin B supplements
You can of course take vitamin B supplements to counteract your lack of whole processed vitamin B packed foods.
An alternative Bioton – B7 supplement is Bacopa monierri (brahmi), one of the best, all-around tonic herbs that promotes brain, kidney, and liver health.
Ayurvedic medicine also teaches us that it will help treat anxiety and importantly for the purpose of this eBook – improve cognitive intellect.
Brahmi compounds have shown to influence regeneration of brain tissue, where long term supplementation in combination with basicodes on animals demonstrated a therapeutic value against the degenerative symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
The nootropic sulbutiamine may be considered the ultimate Thiamine nootropic, where it has a more advanced ability to cross the blood-brain barrier – a filtering mechanism of the capillaries that carries blood to the brain and spinal cord tissue – helping to treat asthenia – a lack of energy – and improve impaired memory.